ISSN 2079-3537      

Scientific Visualization
Issue Year: 2013
Quarter: 4
Volume: 5
Number: 4
Pages: 31 - 46
Authors: A. Voloboy (Russian Federation), V. Galaktionov (Russian Federation)
  The paper is recommended by program committee of 23rd International Conference on Computer Graphics and Vision GraphiCon’2013.
Address: A. Voloboy
Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation
V. Galaktionov
Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation
Abstract: Computer graphics is widely used in the design of modern high-tech industrial products, the development of energy-saving lighting devices. The article provides examples of practical tasks of architecture, automotive, aviation industry, the development of energy-efficient lighting systems, LED design which it was possible to effectively solve exactly with the help of methods and algorithms of realistic rendering. All of the images in the article and simulation examples were made with the help of software systems developed by a team headed by the authors.
In the architecture with the help of computer simulations it is possible not only to identify in advance and agree with the customer an aesthetic interior space and exterior of the building, which is widely used application now, but also to calculate the efficiency and ergonomics of its lighting system. In the design of the office workplaces the lighting must comply with existing standards, which are not only the minimum allowable value of the illumination, but also parameters such as the proportion of direct light from the source to the field of view of a person ("comfort" lighting).
The class of problems of the automotive industry where computer graphics algorithms are applied is much wider. Calculation the car's interior lighting and lighting of driver working place is a task similar to architectural tasks. An important new area is the modeling and visualization of optically complex materials such as automotive paints with complex multilayer microstructure (such as pearlescent and “metallic"). Such safety aspect as the absence of glare and reflections in the glass elements of interior car is verified by constructing a realistic image. Using the tools of computer graphics to design and evaluate the appearance of the headlights and taillights (at different times of a day, in the operating state and switched off) can significantly reduce the cost and expedite the development of vehicle modification.
In the aircraft industry there are two additional aspects. The main difficulty of the lighting simulation of the aircraft cabin is the almost complete absence of direct light. To calculate the lighting here is only possible with the use of global illumination algorithms. An important criterion for cockpit design is well readability of instruments and control devices under different lighting which can be checked with the help of physically accurate realistic rendering.
It should be emphasized that for these tasks lighting simulation should be based on the physical laws of light. The participation of our realistic rendering software system in an international independent verification is described in the article. Our software showed the result as good or superior to the competition.
Established technology of the light simulation was so efficient and accurate that allowed using it in the simulation and engineering design of complex optical light guide and lighting systems, such as LCD monitors, car dashboards, LEDs and lighting systems based on them. The goal of such systems modeling is to estimate the spatial and angular distribution of the light output luminance on the device surface. The challenge is to make the output brightness of the maximum and the maximally uniform across the surface. Shapes of light guiding devices are quite complex and optimal shape design is also fulfilled on the base of lighting simulation. An important area of work is the development of systems of automatic design of optical systems.
LEDs are recently most efficient and widely used light sources. This raises a number of problems of their design and usage. The article contains the example of solution of actual problem of white LED creation using simulation of fluorescence phenomena in a matter covering the emitting element. Small emitting area and light power of LED is a complexity of design of the lighting devices based on LEDs. To achieve the required illuminance values it is often necessary to use large arrays of LEDs, impose secondary optical elements (e.g. lenses). The article presents an example of modeling the LED lamp for road lighting.
Language: Russian