
Accepted papers
Water flow speed determining using visualization methods
D.A. Antonenkov
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
Despite the variety of means for the flow velocity measuring, it remains relevant to develop new methods and modify the existing ones that will make it possible to obtain more information about the dynamics of the water flow. Currently, flows studies using visualization methods are gaining relevance. The article discusses the developed water velocity meter based on the PIV method, capable of working in natural conditions.
The use of suspension natural particles as tracers can significantly accelerate the experiments performance and reduce their cost, which is important while working in the field. A description of the developed methodology and technical means for measuring the flow velocity is given. The results obtained during field tests are presented.
Owing to the modern visualization methods use, the created meter has a number of advantages in comparison with other devices for flow studies. In particular, it makes it possible to obtain instantaneous and averaged fields of the flow velocity distribution in a wide spatial and temporal range.
Visualization of Graphbased representations for analyzing related multidimensional objects
M.S. Ulizko, E.V. Antonov, A.A. Artamonov , R.R. Tukumbetova
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The paper considers the task of analyzing complex interconnected objects using graphs. The subject of the research is such multidimensional object as a “politician”. The paper presents the main methods of visualizing multidimensional data and the choice of data analysis using graphs is justified. An algorithm that enables to automate data collection on politicians was developed. One of the main methods of data collecting on the Internet is web scraping. Web scraping software may access the World Wide Web directly using the HTTP, or through a web browser. While web scraping can be done manually by a software user, the term typically refers to automated processes implemented using a software agent.
The process of transition from an object of the “personality” type to its graph representation with various types of nodes and edges is described. The use of graphs enables to see various types of relationships, including mediate. The features of the used Gephi software for data analysis are presented.
This methodology enables to change the attitude towards the analysis of multidimensional objects.
Visual Analysis of Text Data Volume by Frequencies of Joint Use of Nouns and Adjectives
A.E. Bondarev, A.V. Bondarenko, V.A. Galaktionov
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The presented research is devoted to the problems of studying the cluster structure of multidimensional data volumes. This paper presents the results of numerical experiments on the study of data volumes consisting of frequencies of joint use of adjectives and nouns. The volumes of data were obtained from samples from text collections in Russian. The aim of the research is to analyze the cluster structure of the studied volume and semantic proximity of words in clusters and subclusters. The hypothesis was used that words with similar meaning should occur in approximately the same context. In this regard, in the space of features, they will be at a relatively close distance from each other, while differing words will be at a more distant distance from each other. Research is carried out using elastic maps, which are effective tools for visual analysis of multidimensional data. The construction of elastic maps and their extensions in the space of the first three principal components makes it possible to determine the cluster structure of the studied multidimensional data volumes. The analysis of the cluster structure for the considered volume of multidimensional data is carried out. The influence of transposition of the initial data array is considered. Such analysis can be useful in the tasks of confronting negative verbal influences such as fake news, hidden propaganda, involvement in sects, verbal manipulation, etc.
Application of Visual Analytics Methods to Reduce the Dimensionality of Decisionmaking Problems
A.A. Zakharova, D.A. Korostelyov
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The article discusses the possibilities and approaches to the use of visual analytics methods to reduce the dimension of decisionmaking problems. The main directions of reducing the dimension of the decisionmaking problem, as well as increasing its information content using threedimensional visualization methods: filtering alternatives, grouping and ranking criteria are highlighted. The application of several methods of visualization of choice set and criteria set are considered: histograms with grouping by alternatives, histograms with grouping by criteria, correlation surfaces of criteria. The advantages and disadvantages of visualization methods are highlighted in relation to solving the problem of reducing the dimension of choice set and criteria set. The basic principles of increasing the efficiency of visual analytics of threedimensional images for decisionmaking problem in order to reduce its dimension are noted. A description of an experiment on visual analytics of threedimensional images is given on the example of the problem of choosing an optimal solver OpenFOAM (out of three alternatives) based on 24 results of computational experiments of supersonic flow around a cone with different initial parameters. It is noted that with the help of visual analytics, it was possible to find an error in one of the computational experiments, to reduce the number of alternatives to two, and the number of criteria to five, which made it possible to apply traditional decisionmaking methods to this problem and choose the optimal solver.
Visualization of multidimensional surface given in tabular form
Eugene Popov, Anatoly Batiukov, Tatyana Popova, Natalja Vogt
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The paper describes a graphic model named Exidiagraph. The model is intended for visualization of tabulated hypersurfaces dimension 5D and higher. Visualization of such hypersurfaces is important for a variety of reasons such as quick and adequate understanding of the physical, chemical, and other phenomena meanings. For example, an important task in physics or chemistry is to find the extrema of hyperfunctions obtained during quantum mechanical calculations. In addition, it seems promising to use the model to solve the problem of finding the path with the least energy between the local extrema of the multidimensional hypersurface. The Exidiagraph model consists of a circular set of planes associated with 2D coordinate systems. The model is a further development of the idea underlying the Lumigraph model. Besides, the visualized Exidiagraph model is aesthetically attractive and has a high degree of visibility.
Stressstrain state interactive visualization of the parametricallydefined thinshell structures with the use of AR and VR technologies
A.A. Semenov, Iu.N. Zgoda
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The paper describes a mathematical model of changes in the geometry of thinshell structures for visualization of the analysis data on their stressstrain state (SSS).
Based on this mathematical model, a visualization module for shell SSS visualization using VR and AR technologies was developed. The interactive visualization environment Unity 2019.3 and C# programming language were used. The interactive visualization module makes a 3D image of a shell structure and visualizes the SSS either through heat maps over the shell or through the changes in the shell geometry on the basis of the shell type, its geometric characteristics, and SSS analysis data (transferred to the visualization module by means of a JSON file).
While working on the visualization module, the authors developed a system of components that makes it possible to visualize any 3D surface with coordinate axes (including numbers with a pitch determined automatically), visualize heat maps with a graduated scale, visualize a mesh over the graph to improve the perception of the surface deformations. The middle surface can also be deformed on the basis of SSS analysis data.
This solution increases the efficiency of the work of specialists in civil engineering and architecture and can be used when training specialists in courses on thinshell structures and procedural geometry.
Verification of CauseandEffect Relationships in Cognitive Models Using Visualization Metaphors of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps
R.A. Isaev, A.G. Podvesovskii
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The paper presents the continuation of the authors' research in the field of visualization of cognitive models based on fuzzy cognitive maps. Application of visualization metaphors of fuzzy cognitive maps for verification of causeandeffect relationships in cognitive models is considered. It is shown that increasing the effectiveness of cognitive model verification is possible by activating analyst's cognitive potential. The most natural way of such activation is to increase cognitive clarity of the model through the use of visualization capabilities. For this purpose, a number of metaphors for visualizing fuzzy cognitive maps have been proposed, aimed at increasing their cognitive clarity during verification. Each of the metaphors is focused on the visualization of a certain type of fragments of a fuzzy cognitive map potentially containing errors, redundancy or incompleteness and therefore of interest from the point of view of verification. Examples are given of applying the proposed visualization metaphors.
Creation and visualization of archives of operational parameters of RBMK and VVER reactors
A.M. Zagrebayev, I.Yu. Leveev, V.V. Pilyugin, S. Ten
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
This article describes the mathematical apparatus for express analysis of the archive of operational parameters. The developed algorithms based on the methods of reducing the dimension of the space of variables and the “Chernoff Faces” method allow visualizing the dynamics of changes in generalized limiting parameters, as well as visually determining the approximation or intersection of permitted values by parameters, which in turn can provide scientific and practical use in improving quality of operational personnel work and analysis of situations requiring additional attention and more detailed analysis.
Àpplication of scientific visualization tools in the study of supersonic vortex pair
V.E. Borisov, A.A. Davydov, T.V. Konstantinovskaya, A.E. Lutsky
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
Scientific visualization is an important stage of research. It is intended to provide postprocessing analysis tools for presenting the results obtained numerically and/or experimentally. This is especially topical with regard to the increasing volume of processed data associated with the productive capacity growth of computing systems.
In this work two scientific visualization methods were applied to recognize flow parameters obtained by numerical simulation of counterrotating supersonic vortex pair interaction: the λ2method and maximum vorticity method. The results of their application are compared. The numerical data was obtained by a computational model based on the URANS equations with SA turbulence model. Numerical simulations were performed on the hybrid supercomputing system K60 at the Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics RAS. The main simulation results are presented and analyzed.
Novel Circular Graph Capabilities for Comprehensive Visual Analytics of Interconnected Data in Digital Humanities
K.V. Ryabinin, K.I. Belousov, S.I. Chuprina
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The paper is devoted to the development of tools, which enable to improve the comprehensive power of visual analytics of interconnected data. This kind of data is a great challenge for researchers in the field of Digital Humanities. We propose using ontologydriven SciVi visual analytics platform to tackle this challenge and help researchers to bring data to life.
The proposed analytics components are based on the circular graph, representing the data elements as the circle distributed nodes and the data elements’ connections as the cubic parabolas’ arcs. SciVi platform provides not only the traditional interactive means for graph visual analytics, such as node searching based on regular expressions, highlighting of incident edges and connected nodes by mouse hover, depicting clusters by colors, thresholdbased filtering of weighted nodes and edges, etc., but also a set of new features, which help to solve special analytics tasks. The paper presents these novel features and corresponding use cases.
First, we propose an ontologydriven data extraction, transformation and loading mechanism that allows obtaining the input data from different sources and preprocessing them by custom algorithms defined by means of highlevel visual programming language. Second, we developed a multilevel ring scale that is placed around the circular graph allowing to group the graph nodes according to the given classifier and automatically reorder them at runtime. Third, we demonstrate an implementation of the equalizing filter that allows applying different filtering thresholds to different groups of graph nodes/edges to cut off the noisy data. This is necessary for data wrangling in the case the data noise has a nonuniform strength distribution across the graph. Fourth, we developed a graph state calculator that allows data comparison by performing different operations like union, intersection, etc. on the data slices shown within the graph. Fifth, we make it possible to synchronize the data slice currently visualized by the graph with the corresponding localized area on the geographical map. Thanks to the features presented, the SciVi advanced interactive tools can harness the power of visual analytics in Digital Humanities and Big Data.
Developing NonEmpirical Metrics and Tools for Ontology Visualizations Evaluation and Comparing
I. Baimuratov, Th. Nguyen, R. Golchin, D. Mouromtsev
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
There are numerous ontology visualization systems, however, the choice of a visualization system is nontrivial, as there is no method for evaluation and comparing them, except for empirical experiments, that are subjective and costly. In this research, we aim to develop nonempirical metrics for ontology visualizations evaluation and comparing. First, we propose several halfformal metrics that require expert evaluation. These metrics are completeness, semanticity, and conservativeness. We apply the proposed metrics to evaluate and compare VOWL, Graphol and Logic Graphs visualization systems. And second, we develop a completely computable measure for the complexity of ontology visualizations, based on graph theory and information theory. In particular, ontology visualizations are considered as hypergraphs and the information measure is derived from the Hartley function. The usage of the proposed information measure is exempliﬁed by the evaluation of visualizations of the sample of axioms from the DoCO ontology in Logic Graphs and Graphol. These results can be practically applied for choosing ontology visualization systems in general and regarding a particular ontology. The application for ontology visualization evaluation and comparing based on the formal metrics is provided.
Elaboration of Visualization Modes for Lighting Simulation in CATIA CAD System
E.D. Birukov, A.G. Voloboy, E.Yu. Denisov
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
The CATIA CAD system was not initially intended for lighting simulation. But modern tasks of engineers require to include the lighting simulation into new product design process. This justifies necessity of integration of lighting simulation systems into CATIA CAD as well as adding special visualization modes initially absent in this CAD. This article describes elaboration of such visualization directly in CATIA workspace window using CATIA’s native CAA RADE programming environment. The visualization modes implemented by us significantly simplify preparation of initial data for lighting simulation. Three new modes are considered here: visualization of geometry tessellation in form of a wireframe triangular mesh, heat map display of the optical parameters distribution over the scene, and spherical panorama preview. Implementation of the new visualization may cause the problems for redraw of the additional data in real time. The paper describes the proposed methods of solving or bypassing them. Using the new display modes provides a possibility of tuning some scene parameters and viewing preliminary results immediately while rendering of such scenes may take several hours. Such additional functionality can significantly improve the process of design of a new product.
Visual Analysis of Dynamic Changes in Structured Data on the Basis of Colour Markers
A.A. Trubakova, A.O. Trubakov
Accepted: 20201022
Abstract
One of the most important tasks for decisionmaking systems is obvious and intuitive visualization of input data. If they are displayed correctly and conveniently, this tool can become a very serious assistant for the decisionmaker. Such a tool influences not only on the complexity of the decisionmaking process, but also the correctness and objectivity of the decisions made. Because of this so much attention is paid to this issue in various studies. However, nowadays the issue of displaying the dynamics of changes in structured data (data in which the observed value has an internal structure and consists of a large number of components) is not sufficiently developed. This paper focuses on these issues, provides a formal description of structured data, and suggests an approach to displaying the dynamics of their changes. The proposed approach to visualization allows to see both the general process of changing the observed value and the nature of changes in its internal structure. Separate charts give the opportunity to see the contribution of each component of a structured value and evaluate the dynamics of this contribution over time. The paper also shows the area of potential application of this approach, highlights its features and main prospects. Most of examples in the paper are based on the developed software package for modeling the situation with the spread of COVID19 in Bryansk region, which used the proposed visualization option. There are also examples in which the proposed approach to visualization helps to get new information that is not visible when using other approaches to displaying structured data.
Testing and Visualization of the Singularities of the Mutual Intersection of a Tetrahedron and a Quadric (Chasles' Theorem)
A. L. Kheyfets
Accepted: 20201009
Abstract
The article presents the results of experimental research and testing of M. Chasles’ historical theorem. The theorem shows the singularities of the intersection of an arbitrary tetrahedron and an arbitrary quadric (secondorder surface). The need for testing is preconditioned by the absence of proof of the theorem and the complexity of its perception in the author’s version.
The experiments included construction, visualization, and study of computer 3d models obtained in the AutoCAD and SolidWorks suites. All variants of quadrics are considered in their different relative positions to the tetrahedron. The experimental procedure is considered in detail. The accuracy of the experimental study is estimated. The author tested all the intersection variants given in the theorem: the edges intersect a quadric, the vertices belong to a quadric, the edges are tangent to a quadric, the faces are tangent to a quadric, etc. The experiments confirmed the scientific novelty of the theorem, which consists in the fact that four intersecting straight lines drawn according to the algorithm of this theorem belong to the surface a single onesheeted hyperboloid.
The author investigated in detail the variant of the theorem, when the planes drawn through the edges of a tetrahedron are tangent and enclose the quadric. It is shown that there are 4,096 combinations of plane positions. Only 64 combinations out of them lead to the realization of the theorem. This conclusion supplements the theorem. It is obtained using AutoLisp language programming.
The obtained results differ from the theorem in two variants. The author obtained and presented a proof of one of the theorem variants.
The author concludes that it is necessary to develop a universal proof of the theorem. It is proposed to apply the obtained models and algorithms when teaching students in the computer geometric simulation course.
Combined signed distance calculation algorithm for numerical simulation of physical processes and visualization of solid bodies movement
S.A. Soukov
Accepted: 20200912
Abstract
The article deals with the problem of initializing the field of the signed distance function to the surface of a moving solid body of arbitrary shape. A combined algorithm is proposed for fast calculation of approximate values of a function with a controlled loss of accuracy. The idea is to interpolate the function over the cells of an adaptive grid with local switching to find the distance to surface triangulation. This algorithm can be used both for visualizing the motion of surfaces and for solving various geometric problems arising in the process of numerical modeling of physical processes. The error in determining the function does not depend on the shape of the body and the features of the movement trajectory. The paper contains a description of an algorithm for generating an interpolation grid taking into account a given computational error and an algorithm for calculating the signed distance to triangulation using a binary search tree. Using the examples of processing a spherical surface and a cruise missile model, the possibility of using a combined approach for visualizing the motion of solid bodies and in numerical calculations of gasdynamic flows is demonstrated.
Visualization of energy efficiency of using a material in a deformable solid
M.V. Chugunov, I.N. Polunina
Accepted: 20200912
Abstract
Among scientific visualization systems, CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) postprocessing tools hold a special place, the feature of which is their integration with CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems, which are essential in the daily activities of a design engineer. At the same time, the task of expanding and deepening the standard functionality of CAE postprocessors as a research tool that allows performing analysis of the design solution against various criteria is relevant.
This paper presents the SolidWorks (Simulation) addin, which visualizes the state and behavior of a deformable solid in terms of the energy efficiency of using the material. The criteria for the efficiency of using the material are considered.
A solution in MS VisualStudio C ++/C # environment for SolidWorks Simulation based on API (Application Program Interface) SolidWorks and COM (Component Object Model) is presented, which expands and complements the standard SolidWorks functionality in terms of visualization of the specified criteria and parameters of the stressstrain state of a deformable solid.
Optical Fiber Splicing Defect Segmentation Using Hybrid Active Contour
A. Azizi, Z. Azizi
Accepted: 20200907
Abstract
In this paper, we are interested to segment splicing hot (infrared) images using active contours in order to extract defects for the fiber splicing process on fiber splicer machine. The segmentation is assured by using a hybrid edge and region active contour; where region information uses local statistics to solve the problem of highlight or intensity inhomogeneity, whereas edge information based on Local Binary Patterns LBP, smoothes homogeneous regions and enhance contour information. Experimental results on hot images captured from the fiber splicer machine illustrate the effective performance of the proposed method.
Evolution of Human Computer Interaction
V.L. Averbukh
Accepted: 20200823
Abstract
The paper is concerned with the history and perspectives of the humancomputer interaction. In the first sections, the history of computing in the "precomputer" era is briefly described. Also, the early history of modern computing, methods of first computers controlling and the tasks of programmers at this stage are described. The next section is devoted to firstgeneration computers and describes such tools as panel board, punchcard and punchtape. The section devoted to the second generation computers includes the story on appearing of operational systems and programming languages. That times, the displays were invented and this leads to interactive languages and interactive debuggers. Simultaneously, the study of principles of humancomputer interactions was initiated. Additionally, here we discuss infancy of the computer graphics, development of computer graphics packages and appearance of standards of interactive computer graphics. The next section is entitled “Revolutions in computer graphics”. It is concerned with appearance of series of sametype computers and development of first supercomputers in the light of humancomputer interaction. We discuss here revolutionary changing of computer graphics and emerging of the science discipline “computer visualization” as well as its parts “scientific visualization”, “software visualization”, “information visualization” and “programming by demonstration”. Furthermore, we consider an efforts of design so called “fifth generation computers” based on logical programming. We also tell about infancy of teaching of programming in school. Important stages of the modern computing are emerging of computer nets and personal computing and parallel computers. Now, the virtual reality becomes considerable tool of computer visualization. Modern state of humancomputer interaction is marked by emerging of natural interfaces those include BrainComputer Interfaces, interfaces based on such tools as direct use of nerve impulses, speech recognition, lip reading, mimic recognition and eye tracking, motion capture, gesture analysis. Additionally, here we are to mention haptic interfaces and interfaces providing tactile feed back. We briefly describe the activity approach to the design of interfaces and some problems concerning the mass interfaces. Finally, we discuss challenges arising in the context of modern computing. The paper is of scientificpopular character and reflects the personal impressions of the author.
Computer visualization of ruled surfaces with imaginary directrix
V.A. Korotkiy
Accepted: 20200818
Abstract
In this article we consider ruled surfaces design method based on their separating from linear congruence which is set by four crossing straight lines. We offer graphic projective algorithm for constructing a real line, which is crossing imaginary directrix of elliptic linear congruence. The algorithm is based on using a graphic of imaginary points (in the form of special markers), enabling the use of imaginary points on an equal basics as real points in a process of graphics construction. To separate a surface from elliptic linear congruence we need to repeatedly apply the algorithm.
We have proved the theorem about existence of pencil of planes which are crossing linear algebraic surface of order k+2 through algebraic curves of order k (the 1st theorem). The 1st theorem allows to construct algebraic surface of order four framework, made of straight lines and curves of order two.
We have offered the options for transition from linear congruence based on four straight lines to identical congruence based on collinear fields Ï↔Ï'. Such transition allows to solve the practically important problem to construct a linear surface going through two conic sections. We have proved the theorem about existence of collineation Ï↔Ï' which is based on curves order two which are drawn in fields Ï, Ï' (the 2nd theorem).
We have considered biaxial ruled surface with constant length generators. It has been shown that such surface separates from linear congruence with real axis by immersion of a directrix ellipse into it. The eccentricity of the ellipse is determined by the angle between the congruence axes (the 3rd theorem). The technological advantage of such a surface is that they are mounted from straight beams or rods of the same size. This advantage allows to recommend them for use in architecture and construction.
We have represented the examples of computer visualization of ruled surfaces with imaginary and real directrix.
Approach to conditioning improvement in scalar calibration problem for threeaxis accelerometer module using visualization of measurement efficiency function
M. Grebenkin
Accepted: 20200811
Abstract
The paper proposes a way to optimize a set of calibration angular orientations of accelerometer module using efficiency function visualization in stationary based calibration to increase the accuracy of estimated error model parameters. It includes an analysis of mathematical model of threeaxis accelerometer module measurement errors. The method improves an estimation accuracy of parameters in analyzed model of errors. The error model encapsulates following factors: angular errors in sensor alignment within module frame of reference, deviation of sensor scalar coefficients and sensor biases. Measurement efficiency function characterize an impact of each newly made measurement on overall problem conditioning and depends on module angular position respectively to calibration reference vector. By determining minimal points of shown function, it is possible to form an optimal set of angular positions for calibrated module, which allows to achieve better conditioning of calibration problem. These minimal points are determined via optimization algorithm. Due to complex form of used function it is necessary to visualize it in order to find and set initial points of search. The approach is verified in computer simulation which shows that in comparison with nonoptimal set of angular module positions, optimal set, formed by presented method, improves estimation accuracy of considered parameters in error model in presence of errors in angular positioning of module during calibration process.
Visualization of coolant flow in the model of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel
, , ,
Accepted: 20200720
Abstract
The article is devoted to visualization of the results of experimental work aimed at studying the turbulent flow of the coolant in the model of the lower chamber of a nuclear reactor. Using the method of tracer injection into one of the four loops of coolant circulation, we studied the mixing process of coolant flow in the lower chamber of the reactor. Based on the experiment, the values of the tracer volume fraction at individual points of the model are obtained. To visualize the results, the Matlab software package was used. Obtained during the processing of the experimental data, the tracer volume fraction fields in the characteristic areas of the lower chamber model made it possible to analyze the features of the motion and mixing of the loop coolant flows. The effect of swirling the coolant flow in the lower channel and in the lower pressure chamber of the model was experimentally obtained and visualized.
Analysis of large visualization datasets for thermographic studies in fluid dynamics
, , , ,
Accepted: 20200627
Abstract
This paper reports on the visualization of nonstationary thermal fields for two experimental problems with different temporal and spatial scales using highresolution infrared (IR) thermography. We study: 1. the nearwall region of the impinging nonisothermal liquid jet and 2. the heat fluxes from the shocktube walls during the passage of the shock wave. These are the highspeed fluid dynamic processes, and their study involves obtaining and analyzing large amounts of visual data.
For the nonisothermal mixing of an impinging water jet, the flow is analyzed in the region near an IRtransparent wall. The thermograms of nonisothermal vortex flow in the nearwall region are presented. The energy spectra of temperature pulsations are computed for various regions of the walljet flow. In the gasdynamic experiment, the thermal response of the shock tube wall to the shock wave propagation is studied. The infrared imaging of surfaces with different thermal conductivity and emissivity is conducted.
The approaches are discussed for optimizing the registration and analysis of large thermographic datasets.
Solutions to recognize the table structure by an image in the absence of a priori information
N.O. Besshaposhnikov, A.G. Leonov , M.A. Matyushin
Accepted: 20200617
Abstract
In this paper we consider the problem of recognizing a table structure through the analysis of the provided picture. The problem statement is the following: suppose that we have a photo with an unknown number of particular objects captured, and we know that they are arranged in a flat table structure. We assume that the provided picture complies reasonable restrictions concerning perspective distortion and rotation magnitudes. The goal is to recognize the underlying table structure, i.e., to arrange the recognized objects into some table structure that appropriately fits the picture. From now on we call this procedure the tabulating of the objects. This paper then considers the task of tabulating objects under the conditions of the absence of any antecedent information concerning the table structure, except for the actual picture.


